The traditional independent two-year cardiothoracic surgery residency training program at Yale is designed to train future leaders in the field that are proficient in a broad spectrum of cardiac surgical techniques. In addition to providing robust exposure to conventional cardiac surgery, including surgical coronary revascularization and valve repair and replacement, our program emphasizes cutting-edge advances. Exposure to minimally-invasive approaches, including surgical robotics, percutaneous interventions, arrhythmia surgery, and mechanical circulatory support are offered in a resident-friendly and collegial environment. Close collaborative relationships with the Sections of General Thoracic Surgery, Vascular Surgery, and Cardiology present many opportunities for the acquisition of endovascular (including TEVAR), robotic, and thoracoscopic skills. The internationally-recognized Yale Center for Thoracic Aortic Disease provides robust training in thoracic aortic reconstruction. Our established, rapidly growing minimally-invasive and surgical heart failure programs are designed to provide our trainees with experience in these expanding subspecialties.